Employee costs are broken down as follows:

2011 2010 Change
In thousands of Euro
Salaries and wages 172,697 175,984 (3,287)
Social security contributions 48,122 46,992 1,130
Post-employment benefits 8,136 9,516 (1,380)
Other costs 18,645 7,623 11,022
Total 247,600 240,115 7,485

Employee costs increased in absolute terms by €/000 7,485 compared to figures for the previous period (+ 3.1%). This increase is due to restructuring costs (€/000 17,425) incurred in Italy, Spain and the United States, to downsize staff to reduced market dimensions, which are recognised as other costs. Employee costs include €/000 771 relating to stock option costs which were recorded in accordance with international accounting standards.

Below is a breakdown of the headcount by actual number and average number:

LevelAverage number 2011 2010 Change
Senior Management   100 109 (9)
Middle Management   504 465 39
White collars   2,100 2,088 12
Manual labour   5,033 4,939 94
Total   7,737 7,601 136
Level Number as of 31 December 2011 31 December 2010 Change
Senior Management   97 107 (10)
Middle Management   515 487 28
White collars   2,127 2,076 51
Manual labour   4,880 4,859 21
Total   7,619 7,529 90
 

The increase in staff is mainly attributable to the expansion of the production site in Vietnam.
Average employee numbers were affected by seasonal workers in the summer (on fixed-term employment contracts).
In fact the Group uses fixed-term employment contracts to handle typical peaks in demand in the summer months.

Movements in employee numbers in the two periods are compared below:

Level As of 31/12/10 Incoming Leavers Relocations As of 31/12/11
Senior Management 107 5 (14) (1) 97
Middle Management 487 72 (72) 28 515
White collars 2,076 412 (354) (7) 2,127
Blue collars 4,859 4,793 (4,752) (20) 4,880
Total (*) 7,529 5,282 (5,192) 0 7,619
(*) of which fixed-term contracts 1,277 4,474 (4,391) 557 1,917